Tuesday, February 5, 2019

Arpanet :: essays research papers

The USSR launches Sputnik, the first gear conventionalized earth satellite. In the late 1960s theU.S. military was desperately afraid of a nuclear attack from the Soviet Union. TheUnited States form the Advanced question Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Departmentof Defense to establish a shellproof network to connect military bases. ARPANETs physicalnetwork was established in 1969 to enable universities and research organizations to shift information freely. The first two nodes that formed the ARPANET were UCLA andthe Stanford Research Institute, shortly after the University of Utah was added toARPANET. The give noticework Control communications protocol (NCP) was initially used as the ARPANET protocol, beginningin 1970. By 1971, a total of 23 hosts at 15 locations were connected to the ARPANET. Thefollowing year, the first international connections occurred, linking the UniversityCollege of London (UK) and the Royal Radar Establishment (Norway) to the ARPANET. The way ARPANE T was fit(p) up is so that if one of the network links became disrupted byenemy attack, the traffic on it could automatically be rerouted to other links.Fortunately, the Net rarely has come under enemy attack. In the 1970s, ARPA alsosponsored come on research into the applications of packet switching technologies. Thisincluded extending packet switching to ships at sea and ground mobile units and the useof radio for packet switching. Ethernet was created during the figure of research intothe use of radio for packet switching, and it was found that coaxial line of products could supportthe movement of data at extremely fast range of speed. The development of Ethernet wascrucial to the growth of local area electronic computer networks. The winner of ARPANET made it difficult to manage, particularly with the large andgrowing number of university sites on it. So it was broken into two parts. The two partsconsisted of MILNET, which had the military sites, and the new, small ARPANE T, whichhad the nonmilitary sites. On January 1,1983, every machine connected to ARPANET had touse transmission control protocol/IP. transmission control protocol/IP became the core Internet protocol and replaced NCP (old ARPANETlanguage) completely. Thanks to TCP/IP MILNET and ARPANET remained connected through atechnical scheme called IP (Internet Protocol) which enables traffic to be routed fromone network to another as necessary. all told the networks connected to the Internet speak IP,so they all can exchange messages. Although there were only two networks at that time, IPwas designed to go away for tens of thousands of networks. An unusual fact about the IPdesign is that every computer on an IP network is just as capable as any other, so any

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