Friday, March 1, 2019

How Does Temperature Affect Lipase

How does temperature feign the compute of chemical reception for Lipase? As the temperature increases, so forget the str furnishle of enzyme answer. However, as the temperature exceeds the optimal the tramp of reaction exit decrease. I betoken that at temperatures above 70C the enzyme lipase all(a)ow extend change and at temperatures at a lower place 10C the enzyme will become in quick. Since lipase ope swans inside the military personnel body Id alike predict that its optimal temperature would be around pitying body temperature which is approximately 37C.I predict that forwards the optimum temperature the rank will gradually increase and preceding the optimum thither will be a drastic decrease in set until the enzyme is denaturised. I predict that the rate of enzyme exertion at 45C will be half that of 30C. I predict that the rate of enzyme activity at 45C will be half that of 30C. diagram dexterity of http//www. rsc. org/ learning/T severallyers/Re begin nings/cfb/enzymes. htm Diagram readiness of http//www. rsc. org/Education/Teachers/Re do workces/cfb/enzymes. htmIn my matchled assessment I will be investigating the activity of lipase on take egress fill come to the fore at various temperatures so that I heap indeed find an accurate temperature as to when the enzyme works at its optimum when it becomes in dynamical and when it denatures. To find when the enzyme denatures is to find out when the bonds of this protein disintegrate and henceforth dis subject the enzyme from universeness of any come on put on. When these bonds break, the protein starts to unfold and loses approximately its properties. For example, a denatured protein usually becomes less soluble. As an enzyme, it will lose its king to function as a catalyst.If the stress that is ca utilise the denaturation continues, upstart(prenominal) counterchanges innocencethorn occur. Now that the normal structure of the protein is g i(a), new bonds may be fo rmed, plentiful it a several(predicate) shape. The bonds broken in a denatured enzyme is that of which golf tie-ups the polymers to form the aminic acids. This means that if lipase were to denature at the loftyer temperatures it will in that respectfore ca drop inactivity in breaking down the fill in of the draw hence leaving the unchanged. In this investigation, however, in that location ar numerous factors as to what bunghole impact the investigations results.First of all, the temperature of the room flock play a role in wangleing the results as it can change the temperature of some(prenominal) the stem and lipase. More everywhere if iodine were to move the resolving power or lipase to other part of the room, or to rent out the investigation on a different day, the temperature surrounding the root word and lipase will change and henceforth change the temperature of the issue and lipase. Secondly, if the temperature of the pee clean isnt precisely the temp erature it is supposed to be and then, as expected, would change.Thirdly, the epoch of the content can affect the c at one timentration of the subst evaluate which would then decrease the rate of reaction with lipase. Finally, there is the factor of human shift, as we may non be cap fit of reservation perfect respect outments systematically the amounts of each component will inevitably change, which would in put in change the results. Of this investigation our independent variable will be the rate of reaction, which we will legal community by timing how long it would take for the solution to device white after having the lipase poured in.Our dependent variable will be the term it takes for the solution to flip over pink after having the lipase poured in. Our confineled variable is that of will be all other factors. Enzyme Diagram discretion of http//students. cis. uab. edu/clight/finalprojectwhatisanenzyme. html Diagram readiness of http//students. cis. uab. edu/cli ght/finalprojectwhatisanenzyme. html An enzyme is a soupcon that changes the speed of reactions. Enzymes can build up or break down other molecules. The molecules they react with atomic number 18 called subst order enzymes atomic number 18 catalysts.An enzyme works by allowing a substrate, or treble substrates, to enter the active localise, which is where the reaction takes place, and then to exit in either much(prenominal) or less pieces then it was when it first entered. The active set is unique to a specific substrate which means that other substrates cannot react with that enzyme unless the enzyme is modified. An active invest can be altered by a non-competitive enzyme which encircles the enzyme and alters the shape of the active site which could be very dangerous. Diagram politeness of http//www. wiley. com/college/boyer/0470003790/reviews/ energisings/ ki bring inics_effec ors. htm Diagram courtesy of http//www. wiley. com/college/boyer/0470003790/reviews/kinetics/k inetics_effectors. htm Note that the enzyme remains unchanged so that much of the some substrates can react. Note that the enzyme remains unchanged so that more of the some substrates can react. Structure Proteins atomic number 18 polymers made by fall in up small molecules called amino acids. Amino acids and proteins atomic number 18 made in divisorral of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Protein Protein Amino Acid Amino Acid distri furtherively gene acts as a code, or set of instructions, for making a finical protein.They tell the cell what to do, give its characteristics, and determine the way its body works. Each protein has a unique clock sequence of amino acids. This means that the number and high society of amino acids is different for each type of protein. The proteins fold into different shapes. The different shapes and sequences give the proteins different functions, e. g. keratin are a fibrous protein install in hair and nails. If the gen e has even the sligh study of disorder within its sequence it could lead to an inaccurate order of amino acids and so a untimely protein or in our case faulty enzymes.Substrate cin one casentration An enzyme has an active site where it binds the molecule (or molecules) it acts upon the enzyme then catalyses a chemical reaction involving that molecule (or those molecules). That molecule (or those molecules) is called the enzymes substrate. So the substrate concentration is the concentration of the molecules an enzyme works on. Diagram courtesy of http//biochemistryquestions. wordpress. co m/2008/07/15/induced-fit-model-of-enzyme-substrate-interaction/ Diagram courtesy of http//biochemistryquestions. wordpress. o m/2008/07/15/induced-fit-model-of-enzyme-substrate-interaction/ In oecumenic, if there is an increase in substrate concentration, then more enzymes will be catalysing the chemical reaction and the overall rate of reaction will increase. It will continue to increase until al l enzymes are actively binding substrate (called saturation), at which point no further increase in rate can occur, no matter how high you raise the substrate concentration. In my investigation into enzyme response to temperature this interpret will be of relevant. Diagram courtesy of http//www. sc. org/Education/Teachers/Resources/cfb/enzymes. htm Diagram courtesy of http//www. rsc. org/Education/Teachers/Resources/cfb/enzymes. htm Denatured Denatured Denaturing Denaturing Less kinetic energy so the reaction slows down. Less kinetic energy so the reaction slows down. This represent illustrates the response that rate of enzyme activity has at various temperatures. At lower temperatures the rate is very low as there isnt decorous kinetic energy for the enzyme to work at its optimum, then you of course present the enzymes temperature optimum where the enzyme works best at.Finally you surrender the denaturing of the enzyme which eventually halts with the enzyme world completely d enatured where it then will never take up any activity. Collision opening For a chemical reaction to occur, the reactant particles must collide. But collisions that do not have enough energy do not produce a reaction. The particles must have enough energy for the collision to be prospering in producing a reaction. The rate of reaction depends on the rate of booming collisions mingled with reactant particles. So the less successful collisions that occurs the less products created. Diagram courtesy of ttp//www. worthington-biochem. com/introbiochem/tempeffects. html Diagram courtesy of http//www. worthington-biochem. com/introbiochem/tempeffects. html The reason as to why particles may have or may not have enough energy to create products depends on the amount of kinetic energy in the particles. Hence why at lower temperatures the enzyme becomes inactive as there isnt a high enough temperature to create the necessary kinetic energy to create the products. As the temperature incr eases so does the rate which is receivable to more kinetic energy and hence more successful collisions. H An enzyme can also denature upon extreme pHs. with the extreme pHs being 1 and 14, the enzyme would denature due to the hydrogen acids within the pHs damaging the amino acid bonds within the enzyme. By damaging these bonds, the amino acids break apart, this in turn means that the enzymes active site will lose its shape, resulting in the denaturing of the enzyme. Henceforth, the optimum pH is in the pose of the pH spectrum as neutral pHs are unable to damage the bonds of the amino acids keeping the enzyme capable of reaction.Preliminary Method a. Get a audition supply for each temperature being investigated. b. Add 5 drops, using a pipet, of phenolphthalein to the visitation supply. c. Measure out 5 cm3of milk using a mensuration piston chamber and amplify this to the attempt render. d. Measure out 7 cm3of atomic number 11 carbonate solution using another measure cylin der and add this to the riddle tube. The solution should be pink. e. Place a thermometer in the show tube. f. Place the runnel tube in a pee cleantub and leave until the contents reach the alike temperature as the water bath. g. demand the thermometer from the evidence tube and replace it with a glass rod. h. Use the 2 cm3pipet to measure out 1 cm3of lipase from the beaker in the water bath for the temperature you are investigating. i. Add the lipase to the test tube and start the stopwatch. k. Stir the contents of the test tube until the solution loses its pink colour. l. Stop the clock/ watch and blood the time in a sui display board table of results. *A control was also investigated by having a test tube with the atomic number 11 carbonate, phenolphthalein and milk plainly without the lipase.This is to test as to whether the solution would turn from pink to white heedless of whether the enzyme was present or not. This was the original mode which was employ to carry out the preliminary investigation, however upon consideration it was decided that for the substantive matter-of-fact a slightly alternative method should be used. In our edited method we made the changes of firstly, on putting the lipase into the water bath, this was because heating up the solution instead is to investigate the effects of the temperature of the solution as rebut to how the temperature of the enzyme effects.Secondly it was decided upon that we would not stir the contents for two reasons firstly because by stirring the solution it spread the lipase around more which in effect speed the reaction up so much that it was im feasible to time secondly, by stirring the contents it often made the solution over flow which both made a untidiness and caused the volume of the contents to decrease. Finally it was decided that we were to limit the amount of temperatures being investigated as temperatures below 22? the enzyme was inactive hence winning too long to get down th e time it took for the solution to turn white, at temperatures over 55? c the enzyme, the lipase enzyme would be denaturing hence taking too long to be able to record as well. Final Method a. Get a test tube for each temperature being investigated. b. Add 5 drops, using a pipette, of phenolphthalein to the test tube. c. Measure out 5 cm3of milk using a touchstone cylinder and add this to the test tube. d. Measure out 7 cm3of sodium carbonate solution using another measuring cylinder and add this to the test tube.The solution should be pink. e. Place a thermometer in the test tube. f. Place the test tube, containing only the lipase enzyme, in a water bath and leave until the contents reach the resembling temperature as the water bath. g. Remove the thermometer from the test tube. h. Use the 2 cm3pipette to measure out 1 cm3of lipase from the beaker in the water bath for the temperature you are investigating. i. Add the lipase to the test tube and start the stopwatch. k. Stop the cl ock/ watch and note the time in a suitable table of results. A control was also investigated by having a test tube with the sodium carbonate, phenolphthalein and milk but without the lipase. This is to test as to whether the solution would turn from pink to white regardless of whether the enzyme was present or not. Such changes were made in an attempt to remedy the well-groundedity of the investigation. As is in the nature of an investigation it is impossible to show the results completely accurate and precise. What we can do however is improve the duplicability and reliability of our results by repeating the test multiple times.Risk Assessment plaza Hazard Risk Risk place* Emergency action Phenolphthalein first gear sham Although it is not hazardous one should take precaution avoiding uncase contamination. 1 If in contact with look then flood eyes with water to wash it out. Lipase reckon If in contact with skin it can cause an itch. If someone were to have an supersen sitized reaction to lipase it could cause symptoms much(prenominal)(prenominal) as rashes. 1 Seek emergency assistance if you believe you are having an allergic reaction to lipase. However wash it off as pronto as possible. Sodium Carbonate IRRITANT Sodium carbonate contributes to deuce-ace major hazards skin irritation, eye damage and internal effects. 3 If swallowed, discombobulate two or more glasses of water or milk. If in contact with skin use a cloth to wipe the sodium carbonate or wipe with water and if contact with eyes scrub thoroughly. Milk LOW HAZARD If in contact with skin it can cause an itch, however some people may have an allergic reaction to the substance. 2 Acting in accordance to the severity of the reaction, one should wash it off as quickly as possible. Water HAZARD As the temperature of water we are to use will purge between 10c-80c hot water may come in contact with us and scorch ones skin. 2 If hot water comes in contact with ones skin one must rinse thoroughly with cold water to prevent further burning. Test Tubes HAZARD If one were to drop a test tube, it would be very in all probability for it to smash, disintegrating over the floor which could then cut someones foot. 2 If there is to be a broken test tube on the floor one must alert a member of provide and sweep the area whilst restricting anyone from crossing until one has finished glade the area. Kettle LOW HAZARD If one were to knock a kettledrum over whilst boiling water the contents would spew and henceforth burn someone or something. 1 Keep the kettle away from electrics and other peoples working areas. *Risk rating out of /5 Generic precautions As in all practicals one must constantly take precaution of what is at hand, moreover it is obligatory to wear goggle to protect the eyes and to reduce the risk of skin contact one can wear disposable gloves.Another precaution to take is to ensure that no obstacles obstruct your movement as one may then spill a substance or break a piece of mechanism, a basic step is to push in all stools and to stand up when you do a practical. In addition a class should always leave their bags at the back of the classroom and put aside planners and books making a clear workstation. Any spills, accidents or injuries should be dealt with immediately and assert a member of staff. Review of Evidence The shape of the represent resembles that of the rate of enzyme activity graph on page 3, an arc.With the shape of the graph being similar to an arc, it displays clearly that there is a expressed optimum to the rate of lipases activity and the stages of inactivity and denaturing. The optimum temperature of lipase on this rate graph was the comparable in both my preliminary selective information and my real results entropy which was 30c and in both instances the shapes of the graphs do resemble that of an arc. In the preliminary graph, the ladder bars were alternatively extensive for example, at 35c the conflict between the highest (non-anomaly) result and the lowest was 0. 13 in rate.These inaccurate results could have been due to multiple factors with the more obvious being either human error or faulty equipment. By having much(prenominal) a discrepancy in results it only justified the changes which we had made for the real investigation. When looking back upon my original hypothesis, it stated that before the optimum temperature the rates would gradually increase due to the lack of kinetic energy provided from the heat. Upon reviewing the graph it is clearly illustrated that there is an increase in rate from temperatures 22c-30c with an increase of 0. 26 in rate. I also predicted that the optimum temperature would be 37c, due to the fact that lipase operates in the human body and the human bodys temperature should be 37c. By analysing the secernate of which the graph presents it tells me that the highest rate of reaction was that of 30c, sum this was the optimum temperatur e. Finally, I predicted that once the optimum was exceeded, the rates would begin to decrease as they cannot function at such temperatures due to the breaking in the peptide bonds that holds the amino acids together.Once this bond is broken, the enzyme is trim back to its primary structure which is just peptide bonds occurring the functional structure of the enzyme is lost and it is no bread and butterlong functional denatured. After the optimum temperature, which was 30c, the rate of reaction began to decline as the temperatures increased. Henceforth, my prediction was right in facial expression that once the optimum temperature had been passed the denaturing process would begin to take place, importee the rates of reactions would become slower.Upon looking back at my vicenary prediction, which stated that at 45c will be half that of 30c. However, the decrease in rate was furthest more drastic then I had predicted. (Rate of 30c was 0. 032 rate of 45c was 0. 005. ) This mean s that the process of denaturing was far quicker than I had previously predicted which in turn means that my quantitative was incorrect. However, if I were to replace the 45c infix in my sign quantitative prediction with 35c it could then be glib as the rate of 35c was 0. 011 (30c-0. 032. )In addition, I would further transmute my initial prediction bySecondary info By analysing the provided lower-ranking info I shall be able to further prove or disprove the evidence that I had preserve. By being able to prove my selective information with secondary data which has the kindred outcome and deduction it proves that that the data is repeatable as there are externally record results that support the results that I had recorded. pick up 4 courtesy of http//www. currentscience. info/upload/IssuesFile/29_issues_Article%2010. pdf embodiment 4 courtesy of http//www. currentscience. info/upload/IssuesFile/29_issues_Article%2010. pdfFigure 3 courtesy of http//www. google. co. uk/url ? sa=trct=jq=esrc=ssource=webcd=7ved=0CGIQFjAGurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. diagnosisp. com%2Fdp%2Fjournals%2Fview_pdf. php%3Fjournal_id%3D1%26archive%3D0%26issue_id%3D31%26article_id%3D1135ei=nrjEUJ2XC8HJ0AXPy4DACQusg=AFQjCNEb15WjPAyJMMgCDAjs3ZaorsN3qgsig2=mf7h7XRNBjWBD3cdMS2v-w Figure 3 courtesy of http//www. google. co. uk/url? sa=trct=jq=esrc=ssource=webcd=7ved=0CGIQFjAGurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. diagnosisp. com%2Fdp%2Fjournals%2Fview_pdf. hp%3Fjournal_id%3D1%26archive%3D0%26issue_id%3D31%26article_id%3D1135ei=nrjEUJ2XC8HJ0AXPy4DACQusg=AFQjCNEb15WjPAyJMMgCDAjs3ZaorsN3qgsig2=mf7h7XRNBjWBD3cdMS2v-w Figure 1 (left) 2 (above) courtesy of http//www. slideshare. net/wkkok1957/effect-of-temperature-on-lipase-activity-using-ph-sensor Figure 1 (left) 2 (above) courtesy of http//www. slideshare. net/wkkok1957/effect-of-temperature-on-lipase-activity-using-ph-sensor Comparing the data sets As is clearly shown in all of the above figures there is a clear optimum. In terms of the optimum temperature, i t throw aways from 35c (figure 2 3) to 25c (figure 4. Whereas in the recorded data that I had collated, it was 30c with the rate for 35c being significantly less than half of the rate for 30c. When comparing the rates at 20-25c another difference in rate had occurred as you can collect in figures 1, 2, 3 4 there isnt such a sharp increase in rates whereas in my own results there is a steep increase in rate between 22c and 30c, a difference of 0. 026. ) Moreover, in terms of the temperature at which the lipase denatures also varied as the denatured point in figure 3 is at 50c whereas the temperature at which the lipase denatured in my investigation was at 55c.Finally in terms of the shape of the graphs you can see that in figure 2 the shape of the graph is of a rather steady contour discriminate to the sharp point that is of my graph shape. The fore roughly reason as to what caused such differences was the fact that the secondary investigations used an alternate for example in figures 1 2 the method utilised was slightly different as they used more accurate pieces of apparatus for example they used a micropipette to measure the sodium carbonate into the test tube which would ensure for far more accurate measurements then I had made.Secondly they used a pH probe a Logger Pro to detect the change in the milk which would also prove for much more accurate readings in coincidence to detecting the change with the eye as we cannot see the entire of the solution and we, henceforth, could record a shorter or longer time to the essential figure as we would essentially be guessing as pit to erudite when the reaction was explicitly complete. On the contrary however, they only repeated each temperature 3 times so as to collect triplicate data.In conclusion I would say that by analysing secondary data it does support my data in its general apparent movement but in terms of separate figures, inactivity and denatured points I am unable to defend and apologize that my investigation is completely reproducible. I must say that in all, I would say that the reason as to why there is a difference in the primary data and secondary data is due to multiple factors such as alternate methods, alternate apparatus and an alternate working environment.However, in total, I do feel confident in saying that my results are reproducible to such an extent that it can resemble that of the actual figures and graph shape. Evaluation of errors I believe that the changes made to the preliminary method for the real investigation did improve the overall accuracy of the data in the real results data. However, in the results there were many outliers that were recorded, sise in total. These errors and possible inaccuracies were made possible by such factors as human error, equipment error and technique rror. In terms of human error we may have made the mistake of timing the reaction wrong because the people who are timing the investigation may time it wrong. Secondl y, there may be a difference in opinion in when the reaction would have fully completed as one may say that the solution still contains traces of pink yet another may say that the solution has no traces left. Finally, there could have been the human error of inaccurately measuring the portions of the solution.In terms of equipment error, sometimes the water baths were unable to heat the solution to the condition temperature of which were trying to investigate which would then have the effect of us collating alternate data to what we should have got, this would then alter our rate bars as they be higher or lower. moreover, there may no longer have been a real difference in the datas even if there was supposed to be. Secondly, our portions of the solution may have been mensurable inaccurately as the measuring cylinders used may have not been accurate enough for us to get precise measurements.On top of this, whilst using the pipette to measure the contents into the measuring cylinder, air bubbles were created which then alter our results as we would then be measuring a different sum as opposed to the proposed temperature. Finally such technique errors occurred such as the lipase may have not spread equally amongst the solution which would have left a section of the solution untouched by the enzyme. Furthermore as we took the lipase out of the water bath the temperature of the lipase would either increase or decrease if above or below the room temperature.To improve the accuracies and reliabilities of the data collected and to reduce the errors as is mentioned above I would make such alterations to the existing method -To ensure that the lipase truly got to the temperature that it was supposed to be at an improvement would be as to set the temperature of each water bath 3c higher than what was prepared for which would make it easier for the lipase to heat up to the specified temperature. To increase the accuracy and eliminate the of measuring incorrectly the sol ution ingredients an improvement could be to use a syringe as oppose to a pipette as the pipette cant measure as accurately as a syringe because whilst using the pipette bubbles where constantly created which made it incredibly difficult to then accurately measure the contents that were to be measured in. -As is the nature of foods and drinks the milk would eventually cudgel the date hat it was meant to be consumed by. However this means that the bacteria within the milk may function in a different mode because the bacteria uses the lactose sugars to reproduce, they change it from lactose sugar into lactose acid, which tastes sour and it becomes a huge food borne illness risk to consume it and it must be discarded. Instead then we can use such alternatives as UHT or powdered milk as they have longer life spans because more of the bacteria is removed. To remove the factor of misjudgement whilst trying to detect as to whether the solution has lost all traces of pink an improvement c an be to use a pH probe next time as the pH probe could then accurately detect once the reaction has completely finished by seeing when the figures stop changing on the pH probe. Improved Method a. Get a test tube for each temperature being investigated. b. Add 5 drops, using a pipette, of phenolphthalein to the test tube. c. Measure out 5 cm3of milk using a measuring cylinder and add this to the test tube. . Measure out 7 cm3of sodium carbonate solution using another measuring cylinder and add this to the test tube. The solution should be pink. e. Place a thermometer in the test tube. f. Place the test tube in a water bath and leave until the contents reach the same temperature as the water bath. g. Remove the thermometer from the test tube and replace it with a glass rod. h. Use the 3 cm3syringe to measure out 1 cm3of lipase from the beaker in the water bath for the temperature you are investigating. . Add the lipase to the test tube and start the stopwatch. k. Using the pH metre wait until it displays that no pink resides in the solution. l. Stop the clock/ watch and note the time in a suitable table of results. *A control was also investigated by having a test tube with the sodium carbonate, phenolphthalein and milk but without the lipase. This is to test as to whether the solution would turn from pink to white regardless of whether the enzyme was present or not. Evaluation of proceduresWhen analysing and evaluating the procedures I shall divide the section into four sectors precision, accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility. Precision refers to how well experimental data and values agree with each other in multiple tests. 1 The only evidence to demonstrate the precision of the data is the fly the coop bars. All range bars excluding 30c 0. 001, however for 30c the range is 0. 001. This proves that the precision of the data was quite good with the exception of the data for 30c.By having a small range in data it exemplifies precision of the data as they are all within a similar expanse of figures. However with 30c the data was rather spread meaning that the results for 30c degrees were not precise due to the fact that my range bar is rather spread when compared to the likes of the data from 22c where the range bar is a quarter of the size of the range bar for 30c. This provides me with the necessary evidence to believe that the rest of my results were precise, with the results for 30c being the exception.The ability to obtain consistent results when measuring the same part with the same measuring instrument. 2 Upon considering the repeatability of this investigation one can say that the results are nigh certainly repeatable as the data resembles that of which others have collated and that of the preliminary data. If one were to repeat the investigation with the improved method then the investigation is, with no doubt, repeatable as the evidence lies within the secondary data that supports the data of which I have collated. Accur acy refers to the correctness of a single measurement.Accuracy is set by comparing the measurement against the true or accepted value. 3 Although there is nothing we can do to improve the accuracy per say, we can, for example, remove outliers that do not share any resemblance to that of the true value, we are able to make more accurate calculations as to what the average is because we are taking out a value that does not mean anything to the true value. By doing so in my calculations it not only improved the accuracy of the results but it also exemplified how some factors could change the results so drastically.This demonstrates that although we can control most factors that alters the results we cant completely control them as there are endless factors as to what can affect the results recorded, for example the room temperature could affect the results is could have heated or cooled the solution. By controlling the variables of which were possible to control we did all that was pos sible for us to do in order of making the investigation valid. Furthermore, by repeating the outliers again to get a new set of results it would provide for a more accurate average.This is something that was not do due to the lack of time Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method, and refers to the ability of a test or experiment to be accurately reproduced, or replicated, by someone else working independently. 4 If the results were to be reproducible then it would be possible to look at secondary data and see that it closely resembles that of the results I have provided. When comparing my results to that of peers of who are carrying at the same investigation there is most certainly a resemblance in the overall shape of the graph.Although the rates may differ the general trend of the graph does suggest the same conclusion that there is a definite optimum at around 30c-35c. http//www. slideshare. net/wkkok1957/effect-of-temperature-on-lipase-activity-usi ng-ph-sensor -this is a link to someone elses investigation and results (Tony Hong), from this link you are able to see Tonys investigation and results that follow a similar method as to mine. With this it is possible to see the results and henceforth make a conclusion as to whether my results are reproducible.By looking at his data, it displays clearly that the optimum temperature that he got was 35c whereas in my investigation it was 30c. Furthermore it expects as if that his rates seem to be considerably higher than that of mine. For example, at 35c the rate was 0. 011 whereas Tony got 0. 00038 (s-1. ) In conclusion, it could be said that although my graph does follow the general trend of having a definite optimum and the stages of inactivity and denaturing. However, the actual figures did digress from what I had collated meaning that my investigations results are most in all likelihood not reproducible.Outliers As is seen in the result tables the outliers have been circled wh ich were then excluded when work out the averages for it could completely change the course of the results for if they were to be used as valid results whilst calculating the average it would transform what the real results were originally presenting. Such outliers occurred due to infinite factors, however there were factors of which were attempted at being controlled as is mentioned in Page 1. Overall there was a total of six recorded anomalies, this not only had the effect of creating inaccuracies but also difficulties n detecting which figure was of the figures and which were of the anomalies. Although there was the option of using a 10% lean way which would provide for a fixed bracket as to which the figures can fall into, to what would the 10% lean way be from if we didnt know which figure was the anomaly. The only way to resolve this problem would be to repeat the anomalies in order to attain figures which support the other figures better. finishing In summary I believe that the investigation that I had carried out was rather successful in that it proved that there is a definite optimum temperature as to when lipase works at its best.It also illustrated the stages of inactivity and denaturing. However, the supposititious optimum should be approximately 37c the optimum that was recorded was 30c which would suggests that there were systematic errors. If I were to repeat the same investigation again I would most certainly make some alterations in the method so as to improve the overall hardiness of the investigation. Such alterations to the method would be to use more accurate apparatus such as a pH probe to detect the reaction and a micropipette so as to improve the accuracy of the measurements of the solution contents. Bibliography http//www. lideshare. net/wkkok1957/effect-of-temperature-on-lipase-activity-using-ph-sensor -How will changing the temperature affect the rate of lipase activity of digesting milk fat into fatty acid and glycerol measured using a pH probe? 03/12/2012 evaluate A university degree investigation that seems rather professional. The investigator is an IB student. 8/10 http//www. worthington-biochem. com/introbiochem/tempeffects. html-Introduction to Enzymes. /11/2012 Rating Worthington Biochemical stack was founded in 1947 for the purpose of preparing enzymes for the growing biochemical research community.The article was excerpted from a very popular Worthington publication which was originally published in 1972 as the Manual of Clinical Enzyme Measurements. While some of the presentation may seem somewhat dated, the basic concepts are still helpful for researchers who must use enzymes but who have little background in enzymology. 9/10 http//www. rsc. org/Education/Teachers/Resources/cfb/enzymes. htm Enzyme. /11/2012 Rating The site is aimed at students above the age of 16 who are taking Biology for further studying. It is also of use to first year undergraduates studying biology.It assumes that you h ave studied some chemistry. The website is support by the Royal Society of Chemistry. 10/10 http//biochemistryquestions. wordpress. co m/2008/07/15/induced-fit-model-of-enzyme-substrate-interaction/ -Induced fit model of Enzyme-Substrate interaction. /11/2012 Rating The biochemistry questions site is a free Biochemistry Question Bank for medical students and FMG. It is a forum where one asks a question for someone else to answer your question. It is an open source meaning that answers can derive from anywhere. 6/10 http//www. iley. com/college/boyer/0470003790/reviews/kinetics/kinetics_effectors. htm -Elementary Kinetics. /11/2012 Rating This site is intended to supplement and extend the critical concepts presented in the Boyer textbooks. twain students and instructors at the site are encouraged to explore the world of biochemistry done multi-media. http//students. cis. uab. edu/clight/finalprojectwhatisanenzyme. html -What are Enzymes? /11/2012 Rating Virtual chembook Elmhurst College. The site is found upon Charles E. Ophardt, Elmhurst College, findings.There is very little background to the website besides the fact that it was founded in 2003 by Charles E. Ophardt himself. 7/10 http//www. rsc. org/Education/Teachers/Resources/cfb/enzymes. htm -Enzymes. /11/2012 Rating To see the rating for this website please look back through the bibliography to find the rating for the same website. 1 http//chemistry. about. com/od/chemistryglossary/g/Precision-Definition. htm -Precision Definition. 03/12/2012 Rating The definition was written by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. D. 10/10

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